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In a Linux environment, what is the default locations of the configuration file that Oracle Cloud Infrastructure CLI uses
for profile information?

A. /etc/.oci/config
B. /usr/local/bin/config
C. SHOME/.oci/config
D. /usr/bin/oci/config

Correct Answer: C

By default, the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure CLI configuration file is located at ~/.oci/config. You might already have a
configuration file as a result of installing the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure CLI.


Which one of the following is NOT a valid backend-type supported by Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) API Gateway?


Correct Answer: C

In the API Gateway service, a back end is the means by which a gateway routes requests to the back-end services that
implement APIs. If you add a private endpoint back end to an API gateway, you give the API gateway access to the
VCN associated with that private endpoint.

You can also grant an API gateway access to other Oracle Cloud Infrastructure services as back ends. For example, you could grant an API gateway access to Oracle Functions, so you can create and deploy an API that is backed by a serverless function. API Gateway service to create an API gateway,

you can create an API deployment to access HTTP and HTTPS URLs. apigatewayusinghttpbackend.htm API Gateway service to create an API gateway, you can create an API deployment that invokes serverless functions defined in Oracle Functions. apigatewayusingfunctionsbackend.htm API
Gateway service, you can define a path to a stock response back end
APIGateway/Tasks/ apigatewayaddingstockresponses.htm


With the volume of communication that can happen between different components in cloud-native applications, it is vital
to not only test functionality, but also service resiliency. Which statement is true with regards to service resiliency?

A. Resiliency is about recovering from failures without downtime or data loss.
B. A goal of resiliency is not to bring a service to a functioning state after a failure.
C. Resiliency testing can be only done in a test environment.
D. Resiliency is about avoiding failures.

Correct Answer: D

Resiliency and Availability Resiliency and availability refer to the ability of a system to continue operating, despite the
failure or suboptimal performance of some of its components. In the case of Oracle Functions: The control plane is a set
of components that manages function definitions.

The data plane is a set of components that executes functions in response to invocation requests. For resiliency and high availability, both the control plane and data plane components are distributed across different availability domains and fault domains in a region. If one of the domains ceases to be available, the components in the remaining domains take over to ensure that function definition management and execution are not disrupted.

When functions are invoked, they run in the subnets specified for the application to which the functions belong. For resiliency and high availability, the best practice is to specify a regional subnet for an application
(or alternatively, multiple AD- specific subnets in different availability domains).

If an availability domain specified for an application ceases to be available, Oracle Functions runs functions in an alternative availability domain.


Your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Container Engine for Kubernetes (OKE) administrator has created an
OKE cluster with one node pool in a public subnet. You have been asked to provide a log file from one of
the nodes for troubleshooting purposes.

Which step should you take to obtain the log file?

A. ssh into the node using the public key.
B. ssh into the nodes using the private key.
C. It is impossible since OKE is a managed Kubernetes service.
D. Use the username open and password to log in.

Correct Answer: B

Kubernetes cluster is a group of nodes. The nodes are the machines running applications. Each node can be a physical
machine or a virtual machine. The node\’s capacity (its number of CPUs and amount of memory) is defined when the
node is created. A cluster comprises: – one or more master nodes (for high availability, typically there will be a number
of master nodes) – one or more worker nodes (sometimes known as minions) Connecting to Worker Nodes Using SSH
If you provided a public SSH key when creating the node pool in a cluster, the public key is installed on all worker nodes
in the cluster.

On UNIX and UNIX-like platforms (including Solaris and Linux), you can then connect through SSH to the
worker nodes using the ssh utility (an SSH client) to perform administrative tasks. Note the following instructions
assume the UNIX machine you use to connect to the worker node: Has the ssh utility installed. Has access to the SSH
private key file paired with the SSH public key that was specified when the cluster was created.

How to connect to worker nodes using SSH depends on whether you specified public or private subnets for the worker nodes when defining the node pools in the cluster. Connecting to Worker Nodes in Public Subnets Using SSH Before you can connect to a worker node in a public subnet using SSH, you must define an ingress rule in the subnet\’s security list to
allow SSH access.

The ingress rule must allow access to port 22 on worker nodes from source and any source
port To connect to a worker node in a public subnet through SSH from a UNIX machine using the ssh utility: 1- Find out
the IP address of the worker node to which you want to connect. You can do this in a number of ways: Using kubectl. If
you haven\’t already done so, follow the steps to set up the cluster\’s kubeconfig configuration file and (if necessary)
set the KUBECONFIG environment variable to point to the file. Note that you must set up your own kubeconfig file.

You cannot access a cluster using a kubeconfig file that a different user set up. See Setting Up Cluster Access. Then in a
terminal window, enter kubectl get nodes to see the public IP addresses of worker nodes in node pools in the cluster.
Using the Console. In the Console, display the Cluster List page and then select the cluster to which the worker node
belongs. On the Node Pools tab, click the name of the node pool to which the worker node belongs. On the Nodes tab,
you see the public IP address of every worker node in the node pool. Using the REST API.

Use the ListNodePools operation to see the public IP addresses of worker nodes in a node pool. 2- In the terminal window, enter ssh [email protected] to connect to the worker node, where is the IP address of the worker node that you made a note of earlier. For example, you might enter ssh [email protected] Note that if the SSH private key is not stored in the file or in the path that the ssh utility expects (for example, the ssh utility might expect the private key to be stored in ~/.ssh/id_rsa), you must explicitly specify the private key filename and location in one of two ways: Use the -i option to specify the filename and location of the private key.

For example, ssh -i ~/.ssh/ my_keys/my_host_key_filename [email protected] Add the private key
filename and location to an SSH configuration file, either the client configuration file (~/.ssh/config) if it exists, or the system-wide client configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config). For example, you might add the following:
Host IdentityFile ~/.ssh/my_keys/my_host_key_filename

For more about the ssh utility\’s configuration file, enter man ssh_config Note also that permissions on the
private key file must allow you to read/write/execute access, but prevent other users from accessing the file.
For example, to set appropriate permissions, you might enter chmod 600 ~/.ssh/my_keys/

If permissions are not set correctly and the private key file is accessible to other
users, the ssh utility will simply ignore the private key file.


You are developing a serverless application with Oracle Functions and Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage- Your
function needs to read a JSON file object from an Object Storage bucket named “input bucket” in compartment “qacompartment”. Your corporate security standards mandate the use of Resource Principals for this use case. Which two
statements are needed to implement this use case?

A. Set up a policy with the following statement to grant read access to the bucket: allow dynamic-group read-file-dg to
read objects in compartment a-compartment where target .bucket .name=\’ input-bucket *
B. Set up the following dynamic group for your function\’s OCID: Name: read-file-dg Rule: resource. id =
C. Set up a policy to grant all functions read access to the bucket: allow all functions in the compartment to
read objects in the target.\’input-bucket\’
D. Set up a policy to grant your user account read access to the bucket: allow user XYZ to read objects in compartment
a-compartment where target .bucket, name-\’input-bucket\’
E. No policies are needed. By default, every function has read access to Object Storage buckets in the tenancy

Correct Answer: AB
When a function you\’ve deployed to Oracle Functions is running, it can access other Oracle Cloud Infrastructure resources. For example:

You might want a function to get a list of VCNs from the Networking service.

You might want a function to read data from an Object Storage bucket, perform some operation on the
data, and then write the modified data back to the Object Storage bucket. To enable a function to access another Oracle
Cloud Infrastructure resource, you have to include the function in a dynamic group, and then create a policy to grant the
dynamic group access to that resource.


Which is NOT a supported SDK Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI)?

B. Java SDK
D. Ruby SDK
E. Python SDK

Correct Answer: C
Software Development Kits (SDKs) Build and deploy apps that integrate with Oracle Cloud Infrastructure services. Each
SDK provides the tools you need to develop an app, including code samples and documentation to create, test, and

In addition, if you want to contribute to the development of the SDKs, they are all open-source and
available on GitHub. SDK for Java Python SDK Ruby SDK Go SDK


Who is responsible for patching, upgrading, and maintaining the worker nodes in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Container
Engine for Kubernetes (OKE)?

A. It Is automated
B. Independent Software Vendors
C. Oracle Support
D. The user

Correct Answer: D
After a new version of Kubernetes has been released and when Container Engine for Kubernetes supports the new
version, you can use Container Engine for Kubernetes to upgrade master nodes running older versions of Kubernetes.
Because Container Engine for Kubernetes distributes the Kubernetes Control Plane on multiple Oracle-managed masters
nodes (distributed across different availability domains in a region where supported) to ensure high availability, you\’re
able to upgrade the Kubernetes version running on master nodes with zero downtime.

Having upgraded master nodes to a new version of Kubernetes, you can subsequently create new node pools running the newer version. Alternatively, you can continue to create new node pools that will run older versions of Kubernetes (providing those older versions are compatible with the Kubernetes version running on the master nodes). Note that you upgrade master nodes by performing an in-place\\' upgrade, but you upgrade worker nodes by performing anout-of-place\’ upgrade.

To upgrade the version of Kubernetes running on worker nodes in a node pool, you replace the original node pool with a new node pool that has new worker nodes running the appropriate Kubernetes version. Having \’drained\’ existing worker nodes in the original node pool to prevent new pods from starting and to delete existing pods, you can then delete the original node pool.


You are developing a serverless application with Oracle Functions. You have created a function in a compartment named
prod. When you try to invoke your function you get the following error. Error invoking the function. status: 502 messages:
DHCP options ocid1.dhcpoptions.oc1.phx.AAAA AAAA… does not exist or Oracle Functions is not authorized to use it How
can you resolve this error?

A. Create a policy: Allow function-family to use virtual-network-family in compartment prod
B. Create a policy: Allow any-user to manage function-family and virtual-network-family in compartment prod
C. Create a policy: Allow service FaaS to use virtual-network-family in compartment prod
D. Deleting the function and redeploying it will fix the problem

Correct Answer: C

Invoking a function returns a FunctionInvokeSubnetNotAvailable message and a 502 error (due to a DHCP
Options issue) When you invoke a function that you\’ve deployed to Oracle Functions, you might see the following error

{“code”:”FunctionInvokeSubnetNotAvailable”,”message”:”dhcp options ocid1.dhcpoptions…….. does not
exist or Oracle Functions is not authorized to use it”}

Fn: Error invoking the function. status: 502 messages: DHCP options ocid1.dhcpoptions…….. does not exist or
Oracle Functions is not authorized to use it If you see this error:

Double-check that a policy has been created to give Oracle Functions access to network resources.
Service Access to Network Resources
When Oracle Functions users create a function or application, they have to specify a VCN and a subnet in
which to create them.

To enable the Oracle Functions service to create the function or application in the specified VCN and subnet, you must create an identity policy to grant the Oracle Functions service access to the compartment to which the network resources belong. To create a policy to give the Oracle Functions service access to network resources:

Log in to the Console as a tenancy administrator.
Create a new policy in the root compartment:
Open the navigation menu. Under Governance and Administration, go to Identity and click Policies. Follow
the instructions in To create a policy, and give the policy a name (for example, functions- service-network access).

Specify a policy statement to give the Oracle Functions service access to the network resources in the
Allow service FaaS to use virtual-network-family in compartment For example:
Allow service FaaS to use virtual-network-family in compartment acme-network Click Create.
Double-check that the set of DHCP Options in the VCN specified for the application still exists.


A leading insurance firm is hosting its customer portal in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) Container Engine for
Kubernetes with an OCI Autonomous Database. Their support team discovered a lot of SQL injection attempts and
cross-site scripting attacks to the portal, which are starting to affect the production environment. What should they
implement to mitigate this attack?

A. Network Security Lists
B. Network Security Groups
C. Network Security Firewall
D. Web Application Firewall

Correct Answer: D

Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a cloud-based, Payment Card Industry (PCI) compliant,
global security service that protects applications from malicious and unwanted internet traffic. WAF can protect any
internet-facing endpoint, providing consistent rule enforcement across a customer\\’s applications.

WAF provides you with the ability to create and manage rules for internet threats including Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), SQL Injection, and other OWASP-defined vulnerabilities. Unwanted bots can be mitigated while tactically allowing desirable bots to enter. Access rules can limit based on geography or the signature of the request.


What is the difference between blue/green and canary deployment strategies?

A. In blue/green, the application Is deployed In minor increments to a select group of people. In the canary, both old and new applications are simultaneously in production.
B. In blue/green, both old and new applications are in production at the same time. In canary, the application is deployed
Incrementally to a select group of people.
C. In blue/green, current applications are slowly replaced with new ones. In
D. In blue/green, current applications are slowly replaced with new ones. In canary, both old and new applications are In
production at the same time.

Correct Answer: B

Blue-green deployment is a technique that reduces downtime and risk by running two identical production environments
called Blue and Green. At any time, only one of the environments is life, with the live environment serving all production
traffic. For this example, Blue is currently live and Green is idle. Canary deployments are a pattern for rolling out releases to a subset of users or servers. The idea is to first deploy the change to a small subset of servers, test it, and then roll the change out to the rest of the servers. …

The canaries were once regularly used in coal mining as an early warning system.


Which header is NOT required when signing GET requests to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure APIs?

A. date or x-date
B. (request-target)
C. content-type
D. host

Correct Answer: C

For getting and DELETE requests (when their \’s no content in the request body), the signing string must
include at least these headers:
(request-target) (as described in draft-savage-HTTP-signatures-08) host date or x-date (if both are included,
Oracle uses x-date)


Your organization uses a federated identity provider to login to your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI)
environment. As a developer, you are writing a script to automate some operations and want to use OCI CLI
to do that. Your security team doesn\’t allow storing private keys on local machines.
How can you authenticate with OCI CLI?

A. Run oci setup keys and provide your credentials
B. Run oci session refresh –profile
C. Run oci session authenticate and provide your credentials
D. Run oci setup oci-cli-rc –file path/to/target/file

Correct Answer: C

Token-based authentication for the CLI allows customers to authenticate their session interactively, then
use the CLI for a single session without an API signing key. This enables customers using an identity
provider that is not SCIM- supported to use a federated user account with the CLI and SDKs.
Starting a Token-based CLI Session

To use token-based authentication for the CLI on a computer with a web browser:
In the CLI, run the following command. This will launch a web browser.
oci session authenticate

In the browser, enter your user credentials. This authentication information is saved to the .config file.


Which is NOT a supported SDK on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI)?

A. Ruby SDK
B. Java SDK
C. Python SDK

Correct Answer: E

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